At present, there are more than 2000 wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) in Sweden. Emissions of nitrogen and phosphorus from these, do contribute to the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea and watercourses on a daily basis. To reduce emissions of phosphorus, the Swedish approach has for the last 50 years been to use chemical precipitation.
Today, software is used to test and evaluate different strategies in WWTPs, this in order to improve the operation and get a holistic view over the process. One model that can be used to achieve a holistic view is the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2).
In order to get a software like BSM2 to best mirror the reality, it is important that the model well describes the actual process. Today, BSM2 does not take the load of phosphorus into account, which, if it was included in the model, would describe the process better.
In this master thesis, the author has investigated the possibility of extending the BSM2 model, to include phosphorus and chemical precipitation. Thereafter the results from simulations in BSM2 were compared with measurements from Henriksdals WWTP in Stockholm.
The results showed that a model, after some simplifications, for phosphorus and chemical precipitation could be included in BSM2. The model uses primary precipitation. Precipitation chemical was added with assistance of a PI controller.
Generally the results showed that the model had potential to describe the total flow of phosphorus in the WWTP. In measurements from Henriksdal the average total phosphorus effluent from primary and secondary sedimentation were 3.97 and 0.43 mg/l, respectively. From a steady state simulation in BSM2 the values were 4.26 and 0.44 mg/l and the average values of a dynamic simulation 3.96 and 0.46 mg/l.
Although the average values of total phosphorus matches quite well, it was found difficult to simulate the different fractions of phosphorus effluent from the secondary sedimentation. In order to better evaluate the results and how the simplifications of the model affects them, more measurements need to be done and a comparison with the results received from the BSM2 needs to be carried out. Also an adjustment of parameters in BSM2 must be done, this to achieve a better compliance with the given plant.
Source: Uppsala University
Author: Bydell, Sofie