This report reviews five low vibration ground improvement techniques suitable for remedial work near existing structures. The five techniques are: – compaction grouting, permeation grouting, jet grouting, in situ soil mixing, and drain pile. The factors which can influence the effectiveness of each technique are identified. Cost estimates are given for each technique, except the drain pile technique which is not yet available in the United States.
Nineteen case studies of liquefaction remediation and remedial work near existing lifelines are reviewed. Advantages and constraints of the five techniques are compared. A combination of techniques may provide the most cost-effective ground improvement solution for preventing damage to existing lifelines resulting from liquefaction-induced horizontal ground displacement, subsidence, and uplift.
Although several ground improvement techniques have been developed to varying degrees and used forliquefaction remediation on a number of projects involving existing structures, the approaches that have been developed are scattered in the literature.
The purpose of this report is to present the state-of-practice of ground improvement for liquefaction remediation near existing structures. In particular, the long linear element of-lifeline systems supported by ground having high potential for liquefaction and horizontal ground displacement.
It is hoped that this document will 1) aid the owners and designers in the planning of ground improvement for liquefaction remediation near existing lifelines, and 2) identify those areas where more study is needed.
Authors: Ronald D. Andrus | Riley M. Chung